British alternativist conscientious objector in GB, 1939-1941; worked for Christian Pacifist Forestry and Land Unit in Pulborough and East Sussex War Agricultural Committee in Lewes, GB, 1942-1945
REEL 1 Background in Stamford and Brighton, GB, 1905-1939: family; religious influences; memories of argument with parents about pacifism; his early exploration of political and religious philosophies; disillusionment with Church of England over pacifism; development of humanist inclinations; presence of different Christian sects in Brighton; family and external influences on his attitudes; memories of First World War.
REEL 2 Continues: humanitarian basis of his pacifism; his rejection of Church of England; story of confrontation with Catholic over pacifism; relationship with Society of Friends; wife’s views on pacifism; his exploration of different approaches to pacifism during 1930s. Recollections of period as conscientious objector in GB, 1939-1945: question of expectations of tribunal in Brighton, 1941; knowledge of First World War conscientious objectors; expectation of imprisonment for beliefs; appearance before tribunal in Brighton, 1941.
REEL 3 Continues: answering questions asked by tribunal; opinion that tribunal was puzzled by his stance; need to obtain proof of sincerity for appellate tribunal; being assigned to alternative service; question of what service he was prepared to carry out; how people viewed his stance. Recollections of period as conscientious objector with Christian Pacifist Forestry and Land Unit in Pulborough and East Sussex War Agricultural Committee in Lewes, GB, 1942-1945: joining Christian Pacifist Forestry and Land Unit; prior recollection of state of childhood health; types of men in unit and their community life in Pulborough.
REEL 4 Continues: how unit leader dealt with problems; memories of individuals in unit; memories of Jomo Kenyatta; duties, pay and hours worked; problems with antipathetic farmer; relations with local civilians; relations with unit; move to accommodation in agricultural hostel in Ifield; problems with hostel warden; opinion of prevalence of middle class conscientious objectors; worries for wife psychological state; background to applying for transfer to East Sussex War Agricultural Committee in Lewes.
REEL 5 Continues: return to live at home in Brighton; supervising Italian POWs allocated to East Sussex War Agricultural Committee; relations with Italian POWs; wife’s state of health; family’s ambivalent attitude towards conscientious objection; belief in own position and tolerance of other’s; number of Peace Pledge Union groups in wartime Brighton; opinion of false conscientious objectors received instruction for tribunals; encouragement of Italian POWs to greater work output; resentment of work carried out.
REEL 6 Continues: relations with military authorities; supervising German POWs; comparison between Italian and German POWs; relations with German POWs; nature of relations with farmers; efforts on behalf of POWs; prior recollection of religious life in Christian Pacifist Forestry and Land Unit; cases of false conscientious objectors; comparison between religious and political conscientious objectors; initial source of conflict with other conscientious objectors in Christian Pacifist Forestry and Land Unit.
REEL 7 Continues: question of lack of public knowledge of conscientious objectors; attitude towards fire watching; reaction to reading of Nazi atrocities and about Spanish Civil War; nature of personal philosophy with regards to future; second hand story of German POWs laughing at films of concentration camps; Italian POWs anxiety for situation back home in Italy; post-war agricultural work carried out by conscientious objectors, POWs and returning servicemen; character of post-war Latvian agricultural workers; readjusting to working inside after outdoor work; opinion of value of time as conscientious objector.
Submarines played a key role in operations throughout the Cold War. Commodore Frederic Thompson, kept himself and his crewmates entertained, by creating ‘radio’ programmes, which were then broadcast over the submarine’s internal speakers.