Niemöller, Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin (Oral history)
German officer served aboard submarines U-73, U-39 and U-151 in Mediterranean and North Atlantic, 1916-1918; commanded submarine UC-67 in Mediterranean, 1918
REEL 1 Aspects of service as officer with German Navy, 1910-1918: review of state of national and personal morale, 1914-1918; review of naval career; status of military and naval personnel; concept of total warfare and attitude to introduction of policy of sinking of merchant ships, 1915. Recollections of service as submarine officer aboard various submarines, 1916-1918: account of sinking of British troopship whilst serving aboard U 39 in Mediterranean, 25/1/1917, including view of survivors in water, success in persuading submarine commander not to sink British destroyer engaged in rescuing survivors and significant effect of incident on personal code of morality; method of stalking and sinking merchant ships by torpedo; operations as officer aboard U 151 in Mediterranean, 1916, including capturing Norwegian ship with cargo of copper, success in sinking other ships approaching area during transhipping of copper aboard U 151 and dropping captured crews at Azores, question of success of submarine warfare and increasing submarine casualties as British anti-submarine warfare techniques improved, 1917-1918.
REEL 2 Continues: review of naval career, 1910-1918; method of stalking and sinking merchant ships by torpedo; attitude to introduction of policy of sinking of merchant ships; question of attempts to save lives of crew of sunk merchant ships crew in absence of escort craft; operations as officer in North Atlantic and Mediterranean, U 73, 1916, including prior laying mines off Lisbon, evading harbour defence vessel, story of surfacing amongst Portuguese fishing fleet and continuation of voyage to Austrian Adriatic ports; operations as commanding officer of U 67 in Western Mediterranean, 1918, including sighting large convoy, success in hitting freighter with torpedo, superior speed of convoy, voyage towards Marseilles, crash dive on sighting French aircraft, bomb hits before dive, return to surface, damaged periscopes, surfacing at night, effects of bombs, difficulties in return to Adriatic ports through boom nets of Strait of Otranto and subsequent repairs; realisation of threat of anti-submarine aircraft.