In spring 1942, the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) launched a series of destructive air raids against historic towns and cities in Britain.

These attacks were termed the 'Baedeker' raids after the famous German travel guides.

Photographs

Lübeck

Vertical photographic-reconnaissance photograph taken over Lubeck, Germany following the major night raid by Bomber Command aircraft on 28/29 March 1942. This shows the devastated western part of the Altstadt from the gutted cathedral (top left) to the Drehbrucke (bottom right) and Kanalstrasse (bottom left).
© IWM C 2387
Vertical photographic-reconnaissance photograph taken over Lubeck, Germany following the major night raid by Bomber Command aircraft on 28/29 March 1942.

It is thought that the 'Baedeker' raids were a reprisal for the Royal Air Force's bombing of Lübeck and other historic towns in Germany. This photograph shows the extent of damage to Lübeck after the Royal Air Force (RAF) raid on 28-29 March 1942. This image shows the devastated western part of the Altstadt from the gutted cathedral (top left) to the Drehbrucke (bottom right) and Kanalstrasse (bottom left).

Art

Exeter

Three Fire Guards wearing helmets. Two are holding a hose between them, the third is holding a bucket. They are standing in the rubble of a bombed building with Exeter cathedral in the background.
© IWM Art.IWM ART LD 3197
Study for 'A Fire Guard Team, Exeter'.

Exeter was the first city to be bombed in the 'Baedeker' raids. In this first raid on the night of 25-26 April, 80 people were killed and 55 wounded. In a further attack in early May, 90 aircraft dropped high explosives, parachute mines and incendiaries. Fires devastated the city's shopping centre, and the raids left 163 people dead and 131 badly injured. Exeter and other small historic cities targeted in these raids were often poorly prepared or badly defended. Where possible, defences were improved. This study for an oil painting shows a team of volunteer fire fighters standing in rubble from previous raids.

Art

Bath

a night-scene over Bath, showing treetops, spires, rooftops and chimneys silhouetted against orange flames and surrounded by darkness.
© IWM Art.IWM ART LD 3052
A night-scene over Bath, showing treetops, spires, rooftops and chimneys silhouetted against orange flames and surrounded by darkness.

In two consecutive nights of attacks on Bath from 25-26 April, 400 people were killed, communications badly affected and the town's railway station put out of action. This oil painting by fireman artist Wilfred Haines shows fires blazing across the city during the raids. The city was ill-prepared for an air raid on this scale and blast from high-explosive bombs did considerable damage to the city’s ancient buildings. Wilfred Haines was killed in 1944 by a V1 flying bomb.

Photographs

Norwich

An Anderson shelter standing intact amid a scene of debris in Norwich. A man is leant down surveying the damage.
© IWM HU 36196
An Anderson shelter standing intact amid a scene of debris in Norwich.

Norwich was raided on 27 April and again two nights later. Although Norwich had been blitzed before and had Air Raid Precautions (ARP) provisions in place, these raids cost the lives of 222 people. Fortunately the cathedral and the Town Hall survived the raids but the historic St Julian's Church on King Street was almost completely destroyed. A further attempt to bomb Norwich was made during May but further serious damage was prevented either by a balloon barrage or a nearby decoy site.  The final 'Baedeker' raid struck Norwich at the end of June. It left 14 dead and 11 injured.

Photographs

York

Mr McGregor stands amidst the debris of his house, following a Baedeker Raid on York. The Morrison shelter which saved his life, and the life of his wife and lodger is visible under rubble to the right of the photograph.
© IWM Q(HS) 256
Mr McGregor stands amidst the debris of his house, following a Baedeker Raid on York.

York was hit on 28-29 April 1942. Within the city 79 people were killed and 90 seriously injured. The raid lasted only an hour but heavy explosives and incendiaries caused significant damage, with the city's medieval Guildhall destroyed. Many houses were also destroyed or badly damaged. This photograph shows one York resident standing amidst the remains of his home. Mr McGregor, his wife and their lodger were protected during the raid by their Morrison air raid shelter, just visible under rubble to the right of the photograph.

Photographs

Canterbury

The windows of a Marks and Spencer store in Canterbury are boarded up following a devastating Baedeker raid on the Whitefriars area of Canterbury. In the foreground, piles of debris are all that is left of several buildings along the street. According to the original caption, a fire was started by incendiaries in the top of the Marks and Spencer building and was kept under control by Fire Guards until the National Fire Service arrived. A barrage balloon is just visible in the sky to the right of the photo.
© IWM Q(HS) 289
The windows of a Marks and Spencer store in Canterbury are boarded up following a devastating Baedeker raid on the Whitefriars area of Canterbury.

Canterbury was raided on 31 May-1 June. Many houses, shops and notable buildings such as the Corn Exchange and City Market were destroyed in the raid, together with the bus depot, three churches and two schools. This photograph shows the windows of a Marks & Spencer store being boarded up after the raid. Canterbury was hit again two nights later and again on 6-7 June. In the three raids, 45 people were killed and a similar number injured.

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