In spring 1942, the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) launched a series of destructive air raids against historic towns and cities in Britain.

These attacks were termed the 'Baedeker' raids after the famous German travel guides.



It is thought that the 'Baedeker' raids were a reprisal for the Royal Air Force's bombing of Lübeck and other historic towns in Germany. This photograph shows the extent of damage to Lübeck after the Royal Air Force (RAF) raid on 28-29 March 1942. This image shows the devastated western part of the Altstadt from the gutted cathedral (top left) to the Drehbrucke (bottom right) and Kanalstrasse (bottom left).



Exeter was the first city to be bombed in the 'Baedeker' raids. In this first raid on the night of 25-26 April, 80 people were killed and 55 wounded. In a further attack in early May, 90 aircraft dropped high explosives, parachute mines and incendiaries. Fires devastated the city's shopping centre, and the raids left 163 people dead and 131 badly injured. Exeter and other small historic cities targeted in these raids were often poorly prepared or badly defended. Where possible, defences were improved. This study for an oil painting shows a team of volunteer fire fighters standing in rubble from previous raids.



In two consecutive nights of attacks on Bath from 25-26 April, 400 people were killed, communications badly affected and the town's railway station put out of action. This oil painting by fireman artist Wilfred Haines shows fires blazing across the city during the raids. The city was ill-prepared for an air raid on this scale and blast from high-explosive bombs did considerable damage to the city’s ancient buildings. Wilfred Haines was killed in 1944 by a V1 flying bomb.



Norwich was raided on 27 April and again two nights later. Although Norwich had been blitzed before and had Air Raid Precautions (ARP) provisions in place, these raids cost the lives of 222 people. Fortunately the cathedral and the Town Hall survived the raids but the historic St Julian's Church on King Street was almost completely destroyed. A further attempt to bomb Norwich was made during May but further serious damage was prevented either by a balloon barrage or a nearby decoy site.  The final 'Baedeker' raid struck Norwich at the end of June. It left 14 dead and 11 injured.



York was hit on 28-29 April 1942. Within the city 79 people were killed and 90 seriously injured. The raid lasted only an hour but heavy explosives and incendiaries caused significant damage, with the city's medieval Guildhall destroyed. Many houses were also destroyed or badly damaged. This photograph shows one York resident standing amidst the remains of his home. Mr McGregor, his wife and their lodger were protected during the raid by their Morrison air raid shelter, just visible under rubble to the right of the photograph.



Canterbury was raided on 31 May-1 June. Many houses, shops and notable buildings such as the Corn Exchange and City Market were destroyed in the raid, together with the bus depot, three churches and two schools. This photograph shows the windows of a Marks & Spencer store being boarded up after the raid. Canterbury was hit again two nights later and again on 6-7 June. In the three raids, 45 people were killed and a similar number injured.

Related Content

St Paul's Cathedral seen through smoke caused by a bombing raid on London in December 1940.
© IWM (HU 36220)
The Blitz

15 Powerful Photos Of The Blitz

Beginning in September 1940, the Blitz was an aerial bombing campaign conducted by the Luftwaffe against British cities. Over a period of nine months, over 43,500 civilians were killed in the raids, which focused on major cities and industrial centres. 

Discover 15 powerful photos of The Blitz.

Remains of the 600-year-old St Michael's Cathedral two days after the devastating air raid on Coventry on 14-15 November 1940
© IWM (H 5603)
Second World War

The Blitz Around Britain

The 'Blitz' – from the German term Blitzkrieg ('lightning war') – was the sustained campaign of aerial bombing attacks on British towns and cities carried out by the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) from September 1940 until May 1941.

Air raid warden's steel helmet
Second World War

8 Objects Used By Air Raid Wardens During The Blitz

Discover eight objects that an air raid warden might have needed during the Blitz.