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1. Bomber crews

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1. Bomber crews

The bomber war was fought largely by young, civilian volunteers from Britain and the Commonwealth, commanded by men who joined up before the Second World War. The vast majority of aircrew were in their late teens or early twenties. Only 25% were officers. An increasing flow of Canadians, Australians and New Zealanders meant that one in four aircrew came from the Dominions.

Tiredness etched on the face of a young Halifax pilot of No 405 (Vancouver) Squadron, RCAF, after returning from an operation over Germany, July/August 1942.
An exhausted young Canadian pilot after returning from an operation over Germany, 1942.
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2. The dangers of flying

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2. The dangers of flying

Aircrew were first committed to a tour of thirty operational flights, not exceeding 200 actual flying hours, which could last for any period from four months to a year. Pathfinder crews flew forty-five. A six-month break - usually spent as instructors with training units - was followed by a second and final tour.

Wreckage of a Wellington bomber shot down by flak over the Netherlands. It was one of 21 aircraft lost on the Bremen raid of 13-14 September 1942.
Wreckage of a Wellington bomber shot down by flak over the Netherlands, lost in a raid on Bremen, 13-14 September 1942.

Instructing had its dangers, too, as it involved flying with inexperienced recruits in old aircraft. More than 8,000 men were killed in training accidents or other non-operational flying during the Second World War.

Operational flying was perilous. Chances of survival varied during a tour, depending on factors such as inexperience, fatigue, type of aircraft flown and target. The most dangerous were the first and last five trips. During the whole war, 51% of aircrew were killed on operations, 12% were killed or wounded in non-operational accidents and 13% became prisoners of war or evaders. Only 24% survived the war unscathed.

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3. Daily life

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3. Daily life

The everyday lives of most aircrew, unlike other servicemen, were a unique mixture of danger and normality. At one moment the men were on a bombing raid, a few hours later they were safely at home in the pub.

Bomber operations were extremely stressful and frequently perilous, with a random chance of death or horrific injury. Flying was physically and mentally demanding and constant concentration was needed for many hours at a time. Airmen had to not only fight the enemy, but also a hostile environment in which they might encounter many kinds of adverse weather. Occupational hazards such as lack of oxygen, frostbite and lower pressures at high altitude meant they needed equipment to keep them warm and breathing. These problems were increased by operating at night.

A Whitley crew preparing for a night sortie in November 1941. The ground crew wait patiently as last-minute adjustments are made to the pilot's flying clothing at dispersal. Note the parachutes and map bags on the ground, and the thermos flask- an essential item of personal kit for a seven-hour flight a draughty Whitley.
A Whitley crew preparing for a night raid, November 1941. Final adjustments are made to the pilot's flying clothing.
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4. Flak

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4. Flak

On operations, most aircrew feared anti-aircraft fire - known as flak - although statistically, they were more likely to be shot down by fighters. Shrapnel from exploding flak could cause extensive damage not only to aircraft, but also to the crew. It could result in serious injuries, especially if it struck the head or upper body. The sight and sound of shells bursting nearby were unnerving to an aircrew and a near miss could cause the aircraft to jolt alarmingly.

Sergeant Frank Griggs of 214 Squadron, points to some minor damage to his Stirling, N3751/BU-P, after crash-landing at Stradishall, 28 June 1942. The aircraft was damaged by flak and fighters after attacking Bremen.
Sergeant Frank Griggs of No. 214 Squadron, RAF examines damage to his Stirling bomber after crash-landing, 28 June 1942.
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5. Dealing with casualties

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5. Dealing with casualties

Fatigue and fear were the most common causes of combat stress for bomber crews. Approximately 5,000-6,500 men suffered serious disorders and an unknown, possibly much larger, number experienced lesser symptoms. Simple treatments such as lots of food, rest and relaxation were successful in many cases and about a third of all casualties eventually returned to operations. However, a few were treated harshly and were labelled LMF - meaning 'Lack of Moral Fibre' -  and quickly removed from their stations so as not to affect other aircrew.

Some aircrew sustained severe burns. They were the most serious injuries suffered and needed complicated and very long treatment and recovery periods. Victims benefitted from the pioneering techniques introduced by Archibald McIndoe, civilian consultant plastic surgeon to the RAF, at his hospital in East Grinstead. His RAF patients were known collectively as 'the Guinea Pig Club'. By 1945, 80% of the club’s 649 members were bomber aircrew.

The Royal Air Force: A bomber crew is debriefed after their return from a night raid.
An RAF bomber crew being debriefed by the squadron intellgence officer on their return from a night raid over Germany, 1941.

For aircrew returning safely from an operation, relief at survival was the overriding emotion. Once home they could enjoy a hot meal and a sleep in a warm bed. For the next few days there might be no flying. RAF stations generally had good leisure facilities and there were frequent dances, mess parties and variety shows. Aircrew were given generous amounts of leave, with a seven-day pass every six weeks and shorter periods granted during prolonged bad weather or after difficult operations.

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6. Rescue at sea

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6. Rescue at sea

Not all aircrew made it home. If an aircraft flying over the sea was damaged or out of fuel, the crew would have to make an emergency landing on the water, known as ditching, which was always hazardous. If a good landing was made, the crew could escape into rubber dinghies. Men in the water did not stay alive for long. If survivors were spotted, or their radio distress signals were heard, rescue could come in the form of warship, fishing boat, seaplane or RAF Air Sea Rescue craft.

The crew of an RAF Air/Sea Rescue launch haul in a dinghy with two exhausted survivors from a No 166 Squadron Wellington, HE862/AS-L, which ditched off the French coast after developing engine trouble on its way to Mannheim on 16 April 1943. Flying Officer R Lord (facing camera) and Flying Officer E Hadingham (out of sight) drifted for five days before being picked up. They survived on rainwater, 18 Horlicks tablets and a bar of chocolate between them.
The crew of an RAF Air Sea Rescue launch haul in two survivors from a Wellington bomber, which ditched off the French coast.
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7. Prisoners of War

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7. Prisoners of War

If an aircraft flying over land was critically damaged, aircrew would have to bail out. Parachutes were bulky and not completely reliable, escape hatches were small and had to be located in the dark, and the aircraft might be on fire and out of control. Men were sometimes injured or killed by striking parts of the aircraft after jumping. Only 25% of airmen safely exited Halifaxes and Stirlings, a mere 15% from Lancasters. Landings were often perilous. Survivors would try to evade capture as, if they were not killed by the SSthe Gestapo or angry civilians, they would become prisoners of war (POWs).

Prisoners having a walk around compound of Stalag Luft III, Sagan. Note the accommodation barracks in the background.
General view of the huts and compound at Stalag Luft III prisoner of war camp.

All aircrew were given some instruction in evasion techniques. Before each operation they were also issued with some local currency, a small hacksaw, a compass, a silk escape map and an escape aid box. The box contained enough concentrated food to last for 48 hours, or for seven days if they were flying over Germany. Those landing in occupied countries had more chance of evading capture. As the war progressed, lines of courageous helpers, who sheltered fugitive airmen, were built up by MI9 - the British escape service - to get the men to neutral Spain or Switzerland.

Airmen who became POWs first went to Dulag Luft transit camp near Frankfurt, where they were interrogated for information, and then to a permanent camp. The journey between camps often offered the best chance for an escape. Conditions for POWs were harsh. Food was always scarce and of poor quality, camps were cold in winter and often overcrowded. They were sustained by parcels of food, medicine and other comforts sent by the Red Cross. Almost 10,000 aircrew from Bomber Command became POWs.

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