Polish medical officer served with Department of Polish Army Medical Services in Poland, 1939; internee in Rumania, 1939-1940; escaped from Rumania to France via Yugoslavia and Italy, 1940; served with 6th Polish Infantry Regiment in France, 1940; internee in Switzerland, 1940-1945
REEL 1 Background in Bralin, Germany, 1905-1918: family; education; sight of German troop movements in area at start of First World War, 1914; loyalties of Silesian Poles; how his father went into hiding as Polish nationalist, 1918. Aspects of period as doctor with Department of Polish Army Medical Services in Poland, 1939: pattern of his university education as army doctor prior to 1939; anticipations of coming war, 3/1939; reaction to start of war in Warsaw, 1/9/1939; his orders to move east from Warsaw, 4/9/1939; hearing of Russian invasion of eastern Poland, 17/9/1939. Aspects of period as internee in Rumania, 1939-1940: character of his internment at Dragasani; his escape from internment to Polish consulate, 1/1940; initial refusal of exit visa by Rumanian Police and how they subsequently conceded; journey to France via Yugoslavia and Italy including encounter with German agent in Italy. Aspects of period as doctor with 6th Polish Infantry Regiment in France, 1940: opinion of lack of enthusiasm for war in France and attitude towards Poles; his experiences with regiment, 5/1940.
REEL 2 Continues: crossing of unit into Switzerland, 6/1940. Recollections of period as internee in Switzerland, 1940-1945: role as camp medical officer; German complaint against Swiss officer for allowing Polish army parade in Zurich; question of influence of Germans and attitude of some Swiss army officers, 1940-1941; organisation of Polish Army hospital in Switzerland; presence of British ex-POWs who had escaped from Italy, 1943; repatriation to France, 3/1945. Aspects of period as doctor with Polish Army in GB, 1945-1947: sending of Polish troops from France to GB, 1945; work of Polish Resettlement Corps in GB, 1945-1946; work as civilian doctor in GB from 1947.
REEL 3 Continues: temporary registration of Polish Army doctors to allow them to practise in GB; permanent registration of former army doctors, 1949; opinion of standard of medicine and hospital equipment in GB.
The Holocaust was the systematic murder of Europe’s Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators during the Second World War. The Nazis also enslaved and killed other groups who they perceived as racially, biologically or ideologically inferior or dangerous. Hear seven survivors talk about and reflect on their experiences.
After the end of the Second World War, the Allies brought the leading civilian and military representatives of wartime Germany and Japan to trial on charges of war crimes, crimes against peace and crimes against humanity. The principles of the trial of the Nazi leadership were agreed at a meeting of the ‘Big Four’ – Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union and France – in London in the summer of 1945, resulting in the Nuremberg Charter.
On 2 October 1940, Ludwig Fischer, Governor of the Warsaw District in the occupied General Government of Poland, signed the order to officially create a Jewish district (ghetto) in Warsaw. It was to become the largest ghetto in Nazi-occupied Europe.