Hungarian forced labourer with Rumanian Army in Hungary, 1944; civilian in Hungary, 1944-1951; arrested and imprisoned by Communist regime in Hungary, 1951-1956; escaped from Hungary to GB via Austria, 1956-1957
REEL 1 Background in Sulysap, 1928-1944: family background; education; mother's reaction to outbreak of Second World War, 1/9/1939. Recollections of period as civilian living in Sulysap, 1944: sight of German troops and heavy artillery passing through Hungary, 1944; air raid warnings; start of bombing of Budapest; effect on civilian attitudes to Allied bombing; Hungarian attitude towards advance of Russian Army; entry of Russian and Rumanian troops into Sulysap; German Air Force attack on town; looting by Rumanian troops; protecting his sister from rape by Rumanian soldier.
REEL 2 Continues: beating by Rumanian soldier and his wish for revenge; Rumanian troops' treatment of Hungarian girls. Aspects of period as forced labourer for Rumanian Army in Hungary, 1944: background to becoming forced labourer with Rumanian Army in Tapiosag-Koka area; sight of Rumanian troops committing rape, 11/1944; under artillery fire at Isaszeg, 11/1944; story of how he was used as decoy, 11/1944; treatment by Rumanian troops.
REEL 3 Continues: German repulse of Rumanian attack at Isaszeg, 23/12/1944; story of being given permission to visit family for Christmas; dependence of Rumanian Army on foreign supplies; personal hygiene of Rumanian troops; question of the courage of Rumanian troops; failure of Rumanian Army before defences of Budapest; state of Rumanian Army retreating back to Rumania through Hungary, 1945. Recollections of period as civilian living in Hungary, 1945-1951: membership of Youth Wing of Smallholders' Party.
REEL 4 Continues: political rivalry in Hungary,1945- 1947; first problems with Communist authorities; resistance to collectivisation; grievances of smallholders over state fixed prices, 1948-1951; belief in war between West and Communist Bloc. Recollections of arrest and imprisonment by Communist regime, 1951-1956: arrest and sentencing to twelve years imprisonment, 2/1951; criticism of collectivism that led to arrest; conditions during penal servitude in prison on Czechoslovakian border; background to volunteering for coal mining.
REEL 5 Continues: condition of prisoners, 101/1952; coal mining work at Varpalota; punishment of his mother by the regime for his actions; release of Communist and Socialist prisoners released in 1953; his removal to Csolnok, 1956. Recollections of Hungarian Uprising, 10/1956-11/1956: hearing news of Uprising; 10/1956; hunger-strike in coal mine, 24/10/1956; conditions underground in coal mine during hunger-strike.
REEL 6 Continues: emergence of hunger strikers from coal mine, 28/10/1956; stationing of troops at coal mine, 28/10/1956; his release to Csolnok village, 31/10/1956; fate of common criminals; his return to Sulysap to find his mother; reclaiming his mother's home, 11/1956.
REEL 7 Continues: Aspects of escape from Hungary to GB via Austria, 1956-1957: his trek to Austria, 12/1956; crossing into Austria, 12/1956; reception of refugees in Austria; arrival in GB, 1957; reasons why National Union of Miners refused him a job as a miner, 1957; contrast between British and Hungarian mining methods; question of importance of sport to survival in Hungarian coal mines. Recollection of period as forced labourer and civilian in Hungary, 1944-1945: story of Rumanian soldiers digging up corpse of German soldier and claiming to the Russians that they had killed him.
REEL 8 Continues: Rumanian Army's treatment of Tiger tank's crew, 11/1944; treatment of war dead in Hungary; execution of prominent citizens in Sulysap by Communists, 1945; population exchanges and fate of his father after 1945; opinion of German, Hungarian, Russian and Rumanian troops. Question of injustices done to Hungary after First World War.