Polish Jewish inmate of Warka and Kozienice Ghettos, Poland, 1940-1942; forced labourer with Hugo Schneider Aktiengesellschaft munitions factory in Skarzysko-Kamienna Labour Camp, Poland, 12/1942-7/1944; inmate in Buchenwald Concentration Camp, Germany and Theresienstadt Concentration Camp, Czechoslovakia, 8/1944-5/1945
REEL 1 Recollections of background in Warka, Poland, 1929-1939: family circumstances; education; languages spoken; Polish right wing boycott of Jewish shops; religious character of family. Aspects of period as schoolchild in Warka, Poland, 1939-1940: sight of bombing during German invasion of Poland, 9/1939; search by German troops; restrictions imposed against Jews; treatment of Jewish civilians by Germans; selling of family's possessions; character of German and Polish abuse of Jews. Recollections of period as inmate in Warka Ghetto, Poland, 1940: setting up of ghetto, 1940.
REEL 2 Continues: living conditions including food and heating; contracting typhus in ghetto. Aspects of period in Mniszew, Poland, 1940-1941: reasons for moving outside of ghetto to Mniszew, 1940; accommodation with Polish women; expeditions to beg for food; evading German and Polish patrols. Recollections of period as inmate in Kozenice Ghetto, Poland, 1941-1942: layout of ghetto; beating received from Jewish policeman; his escape from ghetto, summer 1941.
REEL 3 Continues: news of fate of Jews in Kozienice Ghetto, 9/1942; work on drainage canal; return to ghetto. Recollections of period as forced labourer with Hugo Schneider Aktiengesellschaft munitions factory in Skarzysko-Kamienna Labour Camp, Poland, 12/1942-7/1944: work in ammunition factory; acquiring transport job; incident involving Ukrainian guards; lucky escape from blame for accident to drunken guard; how he was used by guards to pass information into camp to discourage escapes; removal to Czestochowa during Soviet Army's advance, 7/1944; conditions during train journey from Czestochowa to Buchenwald Concentration Camp in Germany, 7/1944.
REEL 4 Continues: Recollections of period as inmate in Buchenwald Concentration Camp, Germany, 8/1944-4/1945: punishment of Jewish policeman by inmates; address by political prisoners; duties of blockmaster in childrens' block; conditions in childrens' block; volunteering to clear bomb debris in Weimar. Recollections of period as inmate in Theresienstadt Concentration Camp, 4/1945-5/1945: death of prisoners on journey to camp; conditions in camp; difficulty of comprehending end of war, 5/1945.
REEL 5 Continues: Recollections of period as inmate of Buchenwald Concentration Camp, Germany and Theresienstadt Concentration Camp, Czechoslovakia, 8/1944-5/1945: behaviour of inmates towards each other; beatings received; selection of kapos; competition for position as kapo; food and water supply in Buchenwald Concentration Camp; reaction to Nazi persecution of the Jews.
One of the most memorable elements of the Holocaust Exhibition is the video testimony by survivors which accompanies visitors along the route. But what happened to the survivors after the Second World War? How did they rebuild their lives in the years that followed their release from Nazi persecution?
As the Allies advanced across Europe at the end of the Second World War, they came across concentration camps filled with sick and starving prisoners. The first major camp to be liberated was Majdanek near Lublin, Poland in July 1944.