The first use of machine-guns by the Imperial Japanese Army occurred during the 1904-5 Russo-Japanese War, when they deployed French Hotchkiss guns with some success.
In 1914 they adopted the Type 3 machine-gun. This was a Hotchkiss redesigned by Colonel Kijiro Nambu. The gun is gas-operated and fed from 30 round cartridge strips. This rather awkward feed method, inherited from the original Hotchkiss design, was compounded by the addition of a mechanism to oil the cartridges as they were fed into the gun, in order to ensure smooth extraction of spent cases.
Some Type 3 guns remained in use until the Second World War, although they had, by that time, been superseded by the Type 92 (see FIR 9333).
1. stamped on top of receiver
2-3. stamped on left of receiver
The Second World War was the most destructive conflict in human history. Years of international tension and aggressive expansion by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany culminated in the German invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939. Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later.