11.43 x 59R & 11.43mm Turkish Peabody & .45 Turkish Martini
rimmed, bottle necked case with paper patched (missing) round nosed lead bullet. Lacking its black powder propellant.
Turkey adopted the American-made Peabody Martini rifle and this cartridge in 1872, and examples were issued to second line units during the First World War. In 1877, using this rifle at long range and .44 Winchester 1866 repeating rifles (adopted for Turkish cavalry use) for short range firepower, entrenched Turkish forces at Plevna stopped two separate Russian frontal attacks with massive loss of life, underlining to military observers the continuing need for long-range effectiveness and the desirability of rapid-fire repeaters, but preferably with the characteristics combined within one rifle.