Private Papers of Lieutenant Commander R P Raikes DSO RN
Photocopy of a ts memoir (51pp) written in 1982 describing in particular his childhood and early education in a family with a strong military tradition (1912 - 1925), his training as a cadet at the Royal Naval College Dartmouth (1925 - 1929); his service as a midshipman in the battleship HMS WARSPITE in the Mediterranean and Home waters (1929 - 1932), his service in the submarines HMS CLYDE in Home waters and the Mediterranean (1934 - 1936), HMS SEVERN in the Mediterranean (1938 - 1939) and HMS TALISMAN for operations in Home waters and the Bay of Biscay (January - August 1940); his commands of the submarines HMS L26 based on Dundee (October 1940 - February 1941), HMS SEAWOLF based on Polyarnoe in North Russia and on the Shetlands for patrols in Arctic and Norwegian waters, including operations against the TIRPITZ and the defence of North Russian convoy PQ16 (October 1941 - August 1942) and HMS TUNA for operations in Norwegian waters and embarking the `Cockleshell Heroes' for their raid on enemy shipping in the River Gironde (August 1942 - April 1943); his appointment to the staff of Air Officer Commander-in-Chief, Coastal Command as their RN anti-submarine adviser (June 1943 - May 1945); and as one of the officers in charge of a group of surrendered U-boats at Lishally, Northern Ireland (May 1945 - early 1946). The memoir includes some useful detail about the social as well as the professional life of a naval officer between the wars and about the unhelpful attitude of the Russian forces when SEAWOLF was based on Polyarnoe.
Military conflict took place during every year of the 20th Century. There were only short periods of time that the world was free of war. The total number of deaths caused by war during the 20th Century has been estimated at 187 million and is probably higher.