Guy Gibson (centre) was posted on 21 March 1943 to command the newly-formed No. 617 Squadron RAF at Scampton, Lincolnshire
617 Squadron practise dropping the 'Upkeep' weapon at Reculver bombing range. Dr Barnes Wallis is on the extreme left of the group.
Wing Commander Guy Gibson (in door of aircraft) and his crew board their Avro Lancaster bomber for No. 617 Squadron's raid on the Ruhr Dams, 16 May 1943.
Aerial reconnaissance (vertical) photograph showing the breach in the Mohne Dam caused by No 617 Squadron, Royal Air Force's raid on 16 May 1943.
Surviving members of 617 Squadron (except those who had gone to bed) stand at the entrance of the Officers' Mess at Scampton, Lincolnshire, after breakfast
Posters such as this encouraged people to grow vegetables, which were not rationed, in their own gardens and allotments. Many public parks were also used for this purpose. The scheme became better known as 'Dig For Victory'.
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In January 1940, the British government introduced food rationing. The scheme was designed to ensure fair shares for all at a time of national shortage.
The Ministry of Food was responsible for overseeing rationing. Every man, woman and child was given a ration book with coupons. These were required before rationed goods could be purchased. Basic foodstuffs such as sugar, meat, fats, bacon and cheese were directly rationed by an allowance of coupons. Housewives had to register with particular retailers. As shortages increased, long queues became commonplace.
A number of other items, such as tinned goods, dried fruit, cereals and biscuits, were rationed using a points system. The number of points allocated changed according to availability and consumer demand. Priority allowances of milk and eggs were given to those most in need - children, expectant mothers or invalids.
Certain key commodities were also rationed; petrol in 1939, clothes in June 1941 and soap in February 1942. The end of the war saw additional cuts, and bread began to be rationed in 1946. It was not until the early 1950s that most commodities came 'off the ration'. Meat was the last item to be de-rationed in June 1954.
One way to get rationed items without coupons, usually at greatly inflated prices, was on the black market. Shopkeepers sometimes kept special supplies 'behind the counter', and 'spivs' - petty criminals - traded in goods often obtained by dubious means. By March 1941, 2,300 people had been prosecuted and severely penalised for fraud and dishonesty.
'Dr Carrot' and his companion 'Potato Pete' were two of the Ministry of Food’s most popular creations. Dr Carrot was invented in 1942. The country had a surplus of carrots and the Ministry of Food wanted to encourage people to eat more of them. As part of this campaign, they also circulated stories about how eating carrots improved the night vision of pilots, though in reality this was due to the increased use of radar.
Women queuing outside greengrocers in Wood Green, North London, 1945. Unlike today, when most of our shopping is done in supermarkets, shopping during the war involved visiting individual shops - such as the butcher, greengrocer or baker - separately. As shortages increased, so did the length of the queues. It was common for a housewife to reach the front of a long queue, only to find out that the item she had been waiting for had just run out.
Everyone had to register with a particular shop where they would buy their weekly rations. The ration book had to be handed over to the shopkeeper who would remove the relevant coupons. In the foreground of this photograph are tea, sugar, butter, margarine, cooking fats and bacon rations for one week.
'Off the Ration' Exhibition - Regents Park Zoo, 1939. This poster is advertising a wartime exhibition promoting foodstuffs that were not rationed, such as home-grown vegetables, and suggesting ways that people could supplement their meat rations by keeping rabbits and chickens or joining a pig club.
Not all foods were rationed. Fruit and vegetables were never rationed but were often in short supply, especially tomatoes, onions and fruit from overseas. Supplies were sometimes so limited that some shops operated more like a kiosk, with their entrances shuttered up and just a window open from which the goods were sold. Fish queues were notoriously long.
Members of the Women's Voluntary Service (WVS) with pigs fed from salvaged kitchen waste, 1943. This photograph shows Mrs Gerald De Rivaz, Kathleen Kent and Winifred Jordan, members of the WVS who ran a pig food collection unit in East Barnet, Hertfordshire. Organised collections of 'swill', or kitchen waste, to feed pigs totalled 500,000 tons in 1943.