Feuerheerd, Anita 'Maxie (Oral history)

Catalogue number
  • 8701
Department
Sound
Production date
1984
Subject period
Dimensions
  • whole: Duration 320, Number Of Items 11
Alternative names
  • object name: Oral history
  • object category: IWM interview
Creator
Category
sound

© IWM

Purchase & License
Object description

British civilian in Germany and Holland, 1934-1940; interned at Schoorl camp, Holland, and Liebenau camp, Germany, 1940-1944; worked for the Dutch Relief Force in GB, Belgium and Holland, 1944-1945, and as interpreter and translator with the Allied Control Commission in Germany, 1945-1946

Content description

REEL 1: Aspects of period in Germany, 1904-1939: family background and nationality; education in Hamburg; employment with Mercedes-Benz and at golf clubs in Berlin and Heiligendamm; story of joining mother in Holland prior to outbreak of war; description of daily life in Germany under Nazi regime, including witnessing book burning in Unter den Linden and incidents of anti-Semitism; awareness of Dachau concentration camp, 1938; lack of support for Hitler in larger towns; description of events during Kristallnacht, 11/1938; memories of seeing Hitler, von Ribbentrop and Goebbels; attitude to Nazi propaganda; reaction to speech by Hitler following visit of Neville Chamberlain, 1938; opinion of why Hitler rose to power; description of journey to Holland, 1939. Aspects of period in Holland, 1939-1940: story of hearing news of outbreak of war while with mother in The Hague, 9/1939; effect of war on family. REEL 2 Continues: activities of the Dutch National Socialist Movement (NSB); description of German invasion and occupation of the Hague area, 5/1940; story of German paratroopers disguised as nuns, postmen and railwaymen; description of destruction in Rotterdam; radio news broadcast during invasion; reaction of Dutch people to Royal Family leaving the country; reason for moving with mother to Amsterdam, 8/1940; daily life in Amsterdam; reported to Dutch police every week; description of Jewish population being deported to camps; financial situation; story of being collected for internment, 19/Dec/1940; contents of suitcase; reaction to being interned. Aspects of period in Schoorl internment camp, Holland, 12/1940-1/1941: description of camp and inmates. REEL 3 Continues: accommodation; heating; sanitary arrangements; memories of Christmas, 1940; gifts from local Dutch people; opinion of Camp Commandant; reason for volunteering to work in Camp Commandant’s office; role in facilitating removal of seriously ill inmates from camp; relations between inmates; story of being appointed barrack leader due to fluent German; description of journey to Liebenau internment camp, Germany, 1/1941; reaction to entering Germany; arrival at camp. Aspects of period in Liebenau internment camp, Germany, 1/1941-7/1944: description of camp and inmates. REEL 4: description of Jewish women in camp; story of hearing about extermination of the Jews through coded messages; story about Pat Pardow; arrival of survivors from torpedoed ships; story of Mary Bramwell Booth christening baby born in camp; church services; freedom of movement; exercise outside camp; laundry facilities; story of exchanging goods and obtaining news from German contact; camp security and curfew; story of telephoning relatives in Bremen; description of organisation, facilities and living conditions in camp; story of smuggling out goods from Red Cross parcels to relatives; sanitary arrangements; amusing story about sanitary towels; camp hierarchy; opinion of medical facilities; shopping trips in Tettnang. REEL 5: story of shopping trips in Tettnang being stopped after inmate absconded; description of Red Cross parcels and bartering of goods; story of canteen being started; role in charge of Red Cross parcels; various memories of visitors to the camp; communication with family; story of buying local paper to obtain war news; listened to official radio news broadcasts; description of Allied aircraft flying over camp; camp library; educational classes and qualifications; children’s education; sewing room and materials. REEL 6 Continues: opinion of camp captain Mrs Froom; method of appointing camp floor captains; relations with Mrs Froom; story of caring for sick friend; opinion of living conditions and food; story of Germans punishing 80 inmates in retaliation for alleged mistreatment of Germans POWs in South Africa; attitude to lack of privacy; relations between inmates; story of inmates refusing to work for Germans; story about Evelyn Harcourt; reason for refusing opportunity to leave camp; story of Gestapo officer asking Mrs Froom to vouch for him after the war; story of female relatives of German officials arriving in camp towards end of the war; sexual relations in camp; story of reunion of women inmates with men in Vittel, France. REEL 7 Continues: role in allocating duties on floor; entertainments organised by inmates; relations with camp guards; arrival of American internees, 3/1942; story of visit by American journalist, 6/1941; description of exchange system with German internees in other countries; story of being selected for exchange, 18/Jul/1944; description of journey to Vittel, France; attitude to leaving the camp. REEL 8 Continues: further comments on exchange system; description of journey to Lisbon via Germany and France. Aspects of period in Lisbon, Portugal, 7-8/1944: description of arrival and reception from English female community; problem of German internees delaying departure. Aspects of voyage aboard SS Drottingholm from Lisbon to Liverpool, GB, 8/1944: description of the ship. REEL 9 Continues: further comments on voyage and arrival in Liverpool. Aspects of period in GB, 8-9/1944: story of receiving letters and writing to family; first impressions of Britain; story of St. John Ambulance personnel preparing former internees for civilian life in Britain; security measures; story of reunion with father and step-family; story of joining the Dutch Relief Force; description of camp and training at Wolverhampton, 9/1944; description of march past for Princess Juliana of the Netherlands; story of driving truck to Tilbury Docks, London; description of voyage from Tilbury to Ostend, Belgium, 1944. REEL 10 Continues: Aspects of period with Dutch Relief Force in Belgium and Holland, 9/1944-8/1945: description of work with refugees in Ath and Dendermonde, Belgium, and in Breda, Holland; story of reunion with mother in the Hague; description of living conditions in Holland and problem of lack of food; story of attending thanksgiving service at church in the Hague; story of taking mother to Breda. REEL 11 Continues: further description of living conditions in Holland; physical and mental condition of mother; returned to GB, 8/1945; story of applying for post with Control Commission in Germany, 1945. Aspects of period with Control Commission in Bunde, Germany, 1945-1946: description of work as interpreter and translator; living conditions for German population; story of bringing mother back to Germany; amusing story about interpreting; problem of Nazis and post-war reconstruction in Germany.

Associated people and organisations
Associated places
Associated events
Associated themes
Associated keywords

IWM Non Commercial Licence

The media for this item are free to reuse for non-commercial purposes under the IWM Non Commercial Licence. Video, sound and images can be embedded with the code we offer here, and images can also be downloaded.

By downloading any images or embedding any media, you agree to the terms and conditions of the IWM Non Commercial Licence, including your use of the attribution statement specified by IWM. For this item, that is: © IWM

  • Embed HTML
  • Embed HTML
  • Embed HTML
  • Embed HTML
  • Embed HTML
  • Embed HTML
  • Embed HTML
  • Embed HTML
  • Embed HTML
  • Embed HTML
  • Embed HTML